Release time:2015-9-23 9:02:37

閱讀——學好英語的有效途徑

Reading--Best Way to Learn English Well

Zhang Nan

現代英語教學的方式和途徑,經歷過若干次的起承轉和,從傳統的語法教學,到任務式教學,再到情景交際式教學,無論經歷過什么樣的變化,其目的和宗旨都是為了讓受教者學生能夠以一種輕松愉快的方式掌握英語。但是正象很多的語法學家在他們的論著中所闡述的那樣,任何一種教學方式都有其產生,發展的背景,也因為其適時適地性,不可避免地無法在所有的情境下放之四海皆成真理,而我們的語言學家們因此也還在不斷的探索之中。

The teaching modes and channels of modern English have been inherited and developed for times, from the traditional grammar teaching, to task-based teaching, and then to communicative teaching. Whatever the changes, the purpose and aim is always to enable the students to master English in an easy and joyful manner. However, just as many grammarians elaborated in their works, any teaching mode has its background of generation and development. Therefore, no grammar could be a universal truth under all situations. That was also why our linguists keep exploring.

2008年,在學校的大力推動之下,以我們這個初一起始年級為龍頭,我們英語組參與了教育部的一項國家級十一五計劃科研課題的研究,近三年的實踐下來,收獲頗多,在我們無法完全復制一種全真的語言環境進行教學的情況下,以閱讀為突破口,以聽讀,朗讀,默讀,摘錄,表演為手段,以培養英語語感為目的進而在潛移默化中提高學生的英語成績的閱讀式英語教學不但給我們帶來了新意,更重要的是,讓學生的英語學習變得輕松活潑,充滿趣味性,真正達到了通過語言學習文化的目的。

In 2008, under the promotion of the school, led by our Junior One, our English team participated in a national "11th 5-year plan" scientific research program of the Ministry of Education. After practicing for near three years, we had made a good harvest. While we could not completely copy a real linguistic environment for teaching, we took reading as our point of breakthrough. By means of listening, reading aloud, reading silently, excerpting and performance, the reading based English teaching aimed to cultivate the English language sense of the students and enhance their English score, which not only brought some novelty to us, but more importantly made the English learning easy and lively for the students and made it full of fun and truly realize the purpose of learning the culture via language.

我們所研究的閱讀,并非傳統意義上的英語閱讀理解題目中的閱讀,而是一種學生在主動積極的思維和情感活動中,加深理解和體驗,有所感悟和思考,受到情感熏陶,感受文化差異,進而獲得思想啟迪,享受審美情趣的過程,其形式也就超越了一篇短文,幾個選擇式問題的簡單模式,它所包括的內容要豐富得多。

The reading studied by us was not English reading comprehension in the conventional sense, but a process for the students to deepen their understanding and experience in their active thinking and feelings, feel the emotional influence and cultural difference and get inspired and enjoy the aesthetic fun. Its form has surpassed a simple model of a short article with several selection questions. Its content is much richer.

一、聲情并茂的朗讀

I. Reading with emotions

從初一入學開始,我們就要求學生每天跟著錄音機聽讀美文:內容可以說包羅萬象,有英語課本中的課文,有新概念英語的內容,有美麗的英文中的段落,還有經典名著的縮寫本。無論內容如何,我們在安排給學生聽讀之前有兩點是需要經過反復推敲才能確定下來的:一是聽力部分的語音一定要是標準的英、美發音,二是聽力的內容,也就是語言部分一定要嚴謹。每天聽讀的時間不宜過長,十分鐘足矣。對聽后的朗讀要求是一定要大聲地、聲情并茂地、不折不扣地模仿,甚至有的名著中的角色要用不同的聲音、語氣進行模仿,而越是這樣的文章,學生朗誦的越起勁。在不知不覺中,學生們不但建立起了語感,更重要的是,對那些美文的感悟也加深了。

From the first year of junior high school, we require our students to listen to beautiful articles on a recorder, which can be articles in the textbook, or New Concept English, or some paragraphs, or an abridged edition of classical English works. Whatever the content, we won't confirm the listening materials for the students until we have thought of two points repeatedly. Firstly, the voice of the listening materials must be standard British or American pronunciation. Secondly, the language of the listening materials must be serious. Every day, the listening should not be too long. Ten minutes is enough. After listening, they must read loudly and emotionally, imitate the different voices and tones of the roles in the famous works. Unconsciously, the students have not only developed a language sense, but more importantly, they have also deepened their comprehension in beautiful articles.

我們都知道,開口之前一定要先開耳,耳濡也是要在目染之前。通過這種形式的朗讀,學生開了耳,進而也開了口,更加開了智和心!

We all know that we must train our ears before we open our mouth and read. In this way, the students have opened their ears, their mouth, and their wit and heart.

二、母語般的閱讀

II. Native Language Reading

要想熟練掌握一門語言,最重要的方式就是用這門語言的文字進行閱讀。我們的漢語言學家們,我們的語文老師們不厭其繁地強調過閱讀的重要性,其實語言的學習模式都是相通的。組成那些段落,文章的正是我們日常學習的單詞,詞組和句型和語法現象。孤立,機械地記憶,功利目的極強地大量做題,雖然可以達到應付考試的目的,可是那都是以抹殺學生的興趣,以埋沒了語言所承載的文化內涵為代價的。而母語般的閱讀正是完全避免了這種現象的發生。

To skillfully master a language, the most important way is to read the texts of the language. Chinese experts and teachers keep emphasizing the importance of reading. In fact, the learning mode of languages is common. What make up these paragraphs and articles are the words, phrases, sentences and grammars we are studying in daily time. Though we can cope with the tests by memorizing mechanically and doing a lot of exercises with a purpose, it will kill the interest of the students and bury the culture carried by the language. Native language reading can completely avoid this phenomenon.

在課題研究的初期,我們引導學生閱讀的是《企鵝英語》經典名著縮寫本。那些英語小冊子,短小精悍,趣味十足,很受學生歡迎。不過隨著研究的推進和學生水平的提高,我們開始不滿足于既定的內容,閱讀的內容不斷地得到拓展,容量也迅速地提升起來。

In the earlier period of the research, we guided our students to read the abridged editions of classics of Penguin English. These English booklets are short but funny and thus are very popular among the students. However, with the promotion of research and improvement of the students' English proficiency, we began to feel dissatisfied with the existing contents. We kept expanding the reading contents and quickly increasing the capacity.

《二十一世紀英文報》、《TEENS》、《瘋狂英語》等雜志開始在學生手中傳閱;《世界上最美麗的英文》、《心靈雞湯》、《讀者文摘》、也開始進入學生們的視野;甚至有些英語程度比較高的學生開始閱讀《CHINA DAILY》(中國日報)、《哈里?波特》等難度較大的報刊書籍。

Magazines such as 21st Century English, Teens and Crazy English began to be circulated among the students; The Most Beautiful English in the World, Soup of the Heart, Reader's Digest also entered our students' vision; and even some students with better English proficiency began to read more difficult magazines and books such as China Daily and Harry Porter.

在這一點上我們始終堅持因材施教的原則,對于不同層次的學生給予不同的建議,不同程度的支持,提出不同的要求,而無論如何,都是模擬一種母語式的語言學習方式,讓不同的學生都能有所提高。

In this point, we insist on the principle of teaching the students in accordance with their aptitude. We offer different suggestions for students at different levels and provided them with support to different extents, raised different requirements for them. Nonetheless, it was a learning mode imitating the native language, which helped different students improve.

三、經典句子摘抄

III. Excerpts of classical sentences

在閱讀的過程中,自然會遇到一些精彩的句子或段落,這些美文不但讀起來朗朗上口,而且還因為其語言上或幽默,或深情,或激越的感情在學生的心中引起強烈的共鳴,所以,每個學生都有一個經典句子摘抄本,里面都是閱讀后的精華集錦。每天上課前,利用三五分鐘的時間,讓學生大聲朗讀出其中的一兩個句子或段落,并說出之所以喜歡它的原因,潛移默化中,對英語的理解力就得到了提高。

In the course of reading, we will naturally encounter some wonderful sentences or paragraphs. These beautiful articles are not only readable, but also will arouse a strong sympathy in the heart of the students for their humor, deep emotion or passion. So each student is asked to prepare a "notebook for writing down the classical sentences". Before each lesson, three to five minutes will be given for the students to read aloud one or two sentences or paragraphs and say why they love the sentences or paragraphs. Gradually, their comprehension in English will be improved.

四、寫內容梗概

IV. Writing down the outline

俗話說,熟讀唐詩三百首,不會作詩也會吟,有了大量的INPUT為積淀,OUTPUT 就成為一種必然。每次讀完一本名著的縮寫本,或者小說中的精彩章節,我們就開始引導學生寫內容梗概。剛開始的時候,學生們只能寫引用一些原文,寫起來也缺乏連貫性,邏輯性,慢慢地,我們通過口頭描述,集體討論以及故事接龍等方式集思廣益,故事的連貫性增強了,寫出來的文字也經歷了由東拼西湊的抄寫,到生硬晦澀的CHINGLISH,再到后來比較自如地用自己的語言復述梗概,甚至分析人物特征,綜述時代背景,總括作者的風格……學生們的寫作水平在不知不覺中提升上來,通過深入的了解和認真的討論,對這些小說所依托的歷史,文化背景也有了更深的了解,真正達到了通過語言感受文化的目的。

It's commonly said that you can recite a poem if you read the three hundred poems of Tang dynasty skillfully. With considerable input as accumulation, output has become natural. Every time after finishing an abridged edition of a classical work, or wonderful chapters of a novel, we will guide the students to write down its outline. At first, the students could only quote some original texts, which lacked continuity and logic. Slowly, we gathered wits by means of oral description, group discussion and story chain, their story had become more consistent. Their texts had also developed from patching to hard-to-understand Chinglish, and then to relatively smooth and natural language, and even the analysis of character features, the historical background and the style of the author...The writing level of the students was improved unconsciously. Through in-depth understanding and careful discussion, they had a deeper understanding of the history and cultural background of these novels, and truly fulfilled their purpose of feeling the culture via language.

五、角色扮演

V. Role playing

為了更加熟練地運用語言,更加深刻地體會那些字里行間的深意,更重要的是讓相對枯燥的文字變得鮮活起來,每兩周我們就選取一些極具表現力的場景或故事情節進行表演,那些滑稽的語調,夸張的表情,信手拈來的道具,不但讓演員陶醉其中,也讓觀眾在捧腹之余,加深了對故事的理解,語言學習所承載的文化傳播得到了很好的體現!

To apply language more skillfully and understand the meaning between the lines more deeply, it's more important to enliven the relatively dull words. Every two weeks, we will select some expressive scenes or plots for performing. The funny tones, the exaggerated facial expressions and the props not only made the performers enchanted, but also made the audience laugh and deepen their understanding of the story. The cultural transmission carried by the language learning was well reflected.

近三年的課題研究,讓我和學生受益非淺。在進行英語教學的過程中,我越加深刻地感悟到要想讓學生們喜歡上英語,愛上英語,充滿興趣、熱情地學習英語,我們就一定不能以單純而生硬的地單詞解釋,課文串講,習題演練為模式進行教學,一定要寓教于樂,寓教于看似無形,實則博大精深的閱讀之中,以學生喜聞樂見的故事和新聞為載體,引領語言的學習。而這兩年多來,我的學生也收益良多。英語的語感好了,興趣濃郁了,學習的積極性提高了,成績也不知不覺地提了上來。面對著初三繁重的學習壓力,很多學生在做題的時候會這樣說,我也不知道為什么,反正就感覺這樣做讀起來順!樸實的語言,隱含著深刻的含義!

The near three years of research program has benefited me and my students a lot. In the course of English teaching, I have increasingly realized that to make the students fall in love with English and learn English full of interest and enthusiasm, we shall not simply explain the words and texts mechanically and ask them to do the exercises. Instead, we shall teach through lively activities and through reading which seemed intangible, but in fact vast and profound. With the stories and news favored by the students as the carriers, we will guide their language learning. For these two years, my students had made a good harvest. Their English language sense had been improved, their interest had been boosted, their learning initiative had been enhanced, and their score had also been improved unconsciously. Facing the heavy learning pressure of Junior Three year, many students would say while doing exercises, they just felt it read smooth this way. Simple language implied a profound meaning.




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